Surface Structure and Deep Structure part 2 in Urdu/Hindi

A crucial problem arises in stating the relationship of deep structure to surface structure, or vice versa. The term “transformational” will be used to refer to the relationship. The transformational relationship between deep and surface structures and the transformations that relate the two kinds of structures, can be illustrated by reference to the sentences given earlier. The sentence ‘The old man fell down’ is derived from a deep structure presented schematically as follows: THE MAN FELL DOWN THE MAN WAS OLD According to Noam Chomsky, the deep structure of a sentence is the abstract underlying form which determines the meaning of the sentence: it is present in the mind and not necessarily represented directly in the physical signal. The surface structure of sentence is the actual organization of the physical signal into phrases of varying size, into words of various categories with certain particles, inflections, arrangement, and so on.

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