superrasegmental features (Juncture) part 1

6.1. JUNCTURE Juncture is the transition from one segmental phoneme to another; is either close or open and if open, either internal or terminal. Some linguists have identified four significant types of juncture (or pause.) One is internal or open, and three are terminal. These may be illustrated as follows: Plus juncture: +(a+name-an+aim) +(six+tea+cups-sixty+cups) +(that+stuff- that’s’+tough) +(the+waiter+cut+it+-the way+to+cut+it) +(how+strained-hous+trained) single bar juncture: / His friend/Mohan/is’nt here Double bar juncture: //one// two//three//four Double cross juncture #one# two# three# four Robert De Lancey in his book Linguistics and Teaching (P.20) contrasts the last three of these junctures as follows: ‘Single bar juncture, where speech is terminated abruptly and remains on a level pitch… sometimes, but quite rarely, associated with punctuation. single bar juncture: / His friend/Mohan/is’nt here میرا دوست علی پاکستان ٹیم میں کھیل رہا ہے۔ In double bar juncture (a rising terminal juncture) the voice is less sharply cut off, and there is a rise in pitch before the pause; this rise is part of the juncture, which is, therefore, some thing more than just a pause….. Double bar juncture: //one// two//three//four the Double cross juncture (as falling terminal juncture) is associated with a drop in pitch and a falling off or trailing away of the voice into silence. This can be discerned at the end of most statement utterances in American English, and is typically associated in written English with some form of end punctuation. Double cross juncture #one# two# three# four Some examples of juncture from Urdu are: +(roko/mat+jane+do- roko+mat/jane do )


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